The.umber.f girls that die within their first year of birthed is twice that of boys. 38 Another drawback of the policy is that China’s elderly population is now increasing rapidly. 39 However, while the punishment of “unplanned” pregnancy is a large fine, both forced abortion and forced sterilization can be charged with intentional assault, which is punished with up to ten years' imprisonment. Other techniques commonly used include sexuality education, 3 4 prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections, 3 preconception counselling 3 and management, and infertility management. 2 Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for the use of birth control, however, it often includes a wide variety marriage preparation of methods, and practices that are not birth control. If adolescent girls in Brazil and India were able to wait until their early twenties to have children, the increased economic productivity would equal more than $3.5 billion and $7.7 billion, respectively.” 12 The world's largest international source of funding for population and reproductive health programs is the United Nations Population Fund UNFPA . There are two types of surrogacy: traditional and gestational . However, the policy has come under criticism that it has resulted in the abuse of women. Since the policy was put into place in 1979, over 400 million births have been prevented in China. 37 China's population policy has been credited with a very significant slowing of China's population growth which had been higher before the policy was implemented. As a developing nation, the Chinese government was concerned that a continuation of the rapid population growth that had been occurring would hinder their development as a nation.

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Introduced.n 1960, “the Pill” has played an instrumental role in family planning for decades. As of 2004, the share of women of reproductive age using hormonal or intrauterine birth control methods was about 46% 29% intrauterine, 17% hormonal . 56 During the soviet era high quality contraceptives were difficult to obtain, and abortion became the most common way of preventing unwanted births.