Main.rticle:.amily planning in Singapore Population control in Singapore spans two distinct phases: first to slow and reverse the boom in births that started after World War II ; and then, from the 1980s onwards, to encourage parents to have more children because birth numbers had fallen below replacement levels . About 99% of maternal deaths occur in developing countries; more than half occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third in South Asia. 9 Both early and late motherhood have increased risks. But funding for Title X as a percentage of total public funding to family planning client services has steadily declined from 44% of total expenditures in 1980 to 12% in 2006. There are two types of surrogacy: traditional and gestational . It is achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility. Mapping of a woman's ovarian reserve, follicular dynamics and associated biomarkers can give an individual prognosis about future chances of pregnancy, facilitating an informed choice of when to have children. 17 See also: Family economics and Cost of raising a child Family planning is among the most cost-effective of all health interventions. 18 “The cost savings stem from a reduction in unintended pregnancy, as well as a reduction in transmission of sexually transmitted infections, including HIV”. 18 Childbirth and prenatal health care cost averaged $7,090 for normal delivery in the United States in 1996. 19 U.S.